Research Cited

  1. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. (2016, March 1). One in two Americans have a musculoskeletal condition: New report outlines the prevalence, scope, cost and projected growth of musculoskeletal disorders in the U.S.. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 15, 2019 from
  2. Deyo, R. A., Smith, D. H., Johnson, E. S., Donovan, M., Tillotson, C. J., Yang, X., … Dobscha, S. K. (2011). Opioids for back pain patients: primary care prescribing patterns and use of services. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine : JABFM24(6), 717–727. doi:10.3122/jabfm.2011.06.100232 from
  3. Donelson, Ron. (2018, November 6). The diagnostic revolution in musculoskeletal care. Validation Institute.
  4. Denninger, T.R., et al. The Influence of Patient Choice of First Provider on Costs and Outcomes: Analysis From a Physical Therapy Patient Registry, JOSPT. 2017.
  5. Frogner, B.K.,et al. Physical Therapy as the First Point of Care to Treat Lower Back Pain: An Instrumental Variables Approach to Estimate Impact on Opioid Prescription, Health Care Utilization, and Costs, HSR. 2018.
  6. Fritz J.M, et al. Primary Care Referral of Patients with Low Back Pain to Physical Therapy: Impact on Future Health Care Utilization and Costs. HSR. 2012.
  7. Markut K.A., et al. Influence of Opioid Use and Referral Source on Subjective Outcomes for Patients with Spine Pain. APTA Combined Sections Meeting. Abstract. New Orleans, LA, February, 2018. JOSPT 48(1) January, 2018.